Comparison of bone mineral density and serum minerals in pre and post-menopausal women
Background: Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens bones, increasing the risk of sudden and unexpected fractures. Literally meaning “porous bone”, it results in an increased loss of bone mass and strength. The disease often progresses without any symptoms or pain. Though the exact cause is not known it can be prevented. After age 35, bone breakdown outpaces bone build-up, resulting in a gradual loss of bone mass. Once this loss of bone reaches a certain point, a person has osteoporosis. After menopause, bone resorption (breakdown) outpaces the building of new bone. Osteoporosis is a silent disease, reflected only in a low bone density, till a fracture occurs.One of the most rapidly emerging health problems in the postmenopausal women is osteoporosis. It is now realized that, osteoporotic fractures are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India in the elderly women population. Aim:To study the correlation between serum minerals and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in pre and postmenopausal women.
Methods: This study was designed to find out the serum mineral levels and its correlation with bone mineral density in pre and post-menopausal women. The present study was a cross-sectional study. 40 women from each group i.e. premenopausal and postmenopausal women were selected for the study with no medical, surgical or gynaecological abnormalities. The Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was measured by Bone Densitometer and classified as normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis according to T-score. Serum minerals were measured in autoanalyser. The data was analyzed using Microsoft excel 2007. For the comparison of values between the groups, students ‘t’ test was used, for the correlation, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used.
Results: Around 80% of the post-menopausal women are osteoporotic. BMD scores were significantly low in postmenopausal women according to T-score along with significantly decreased Serum mineral levels when compared to premenopausal women. There was significant positive correlation between T-score and serum calcium and magnesium levels in postmenopausal women.
Conclusions: Our study suggests that peri and postmenopausal women should take magnesium rich foods also like whole grains, legumes, fruits and vegetables (especially dark-green, leafy vegetables) every day which will help to provide recommended intakes of magnesium and maintain normal storage levels of this mineral. If these foods are not available or serum levels are too low supplementation can be given in the form of tablets.
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