Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a rare neuro-cardiological entity with its challenges

Pugazhendi Inban, Nithya Venkatesh, Priyadarshi Prajjwal, Majid Hassan, Mujtaba H. Shah, Rayyan R. Sunasra, Karan Gupta, Yamini Sharma

Abstract

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is a type of neuro cardiological disorder that evince as acute but reversible heart failure. On the whole, it occurs by stress-related cardiomyopathy which illustrates the heart-brain connection. It was first discovered in 1990, by a Japanese cardiovascular specialist. That's the beginning of this heart disease in gaining worldwide acceptance as an independent disease entity. TCM is entirely different from acute myocardial infarction as usually occurs in postmenopausal elderly women due to emotional or physical stress. It is characterized by transient hypokinesis of the left ventricular apex. However, there are complications too that need to be addressed. Some reports of serious TCM include hypotension, thrombosis involving LV apex, heart failure, and ventricular rupture. It is also suggested that coronary spasms, myocarditis, and coronary microvascular dysfunction might contribute to the pathogenesis of TCM. But in total, its pathophysiology is unclear. In this review article, we review the pathogenesis and etiology of this rare complex disorder along with its clinical features, findings, challenges in diagnosis, and a comprehensive discussion on the same.

Keywords

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, Left ventricular apex, Stress, Myocarditis, Postmenopausal

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