Effect of paracetamol as a prophylactic analgesic in infertile women undergoing hysterosalpingography in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria: a randomised controlled trial


  • Peter Chibuzor Oriji Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0151-5466
  • Enefia Kelvin Kiridi 2Department of Radiology, Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsa State, Nigeria 3Silhouette Radiodiagnostic Consultants, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
  • Johnpatrick Uchenna Ugwoegbu Department of Radiology, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
  • Isaac Joel Abasi Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
  • Akaninyene Eseme Ubom Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Perinatology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria




Hysterosalpingography, Pain, Paracetamol, Placebo, Bayelsa


Background: Hysterosalpingography is the primary investigative modality of choice for the evaluation of the uterine cavity, fallopian tubes, and adjacent peritoneal cavity. Objective were to compare the effectiveness of paracetamol and placebo in pain reduction during hysterosalpingography.

Methods: This randomised controlled trial was conducted at the radiology departments and infertility clinics of the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, both in Bayelsa State, Nigeria, from February, 2021-July, 2021. Three hundred and eighty infertile women were assigned into two groups. Women in group I received paracetamol, while the women in group II received placebo. Data were analysed using statistical product and service solutions for Windows® version 25. Student’s t-test was used to compare sample means; and the Chi-square test was used to compare the proportion of women who expressed pain at the different steps of the procedure.

Results: Pain ratings among women in the placebo group were higher than those of women in the paracetamol group at all the stages of the procedure. The highest pain scores were recorded during the instillation of contrast media in both study groups, but higher in patients in the placebo group.

Conclusions: Our study revealed that paracetamol was superior to placebo in the control of hysterosalpingography-associated pain. However, pain scores high in the 2 groups during instillation of contrast media into uterine cavity.


Author Biography

Peter Chibuzor Oriji, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist


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Original Research Articles