A randomised comparative study of dexmedetomidine and midazolam for sedation during awake fiberoptic intubation in laproscopic cholecystectomy patients


  • Praneet Singh Department of Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, Government Medical College, Rajindra Hospital, Patiala, Punjab, India
  • T. S. Punia
  • Balwinder Kaur
  • Pavan Ramachandriah
  • Jaspreet Kaur
  • Divya Kumar




Awake fiberoptic intubation, Dexmedetomidine, Midazolam, Sedation


Background: Fiberoptic nasotracheal intubation is an effective method for the management of patients with difficult airways. An ideal sedation regimen would ensure patient’s comfort, attenuation of airway reflexes, patient’s co-ordination, haemodynamic stability and amnesia. It is critical for both the surgeon and the anesthesiologist to understand the physiologic consequences of laparoscopy and to work in cooperation to achieve a good surgical outcome.

Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to midazolam (MDZ) group (group 1) and dexmedetomidine (DEX) group (group 2). DEX patients received dexmedetomidine 1μg/kg, followed by an infusion of dexmedetomidine 0.1μg/kg/hr titrated to 0.7μg/kg/hr to achieve RSS ≥2. MDZ subjects received IV midazolam 0.05mg/kg with additional doses given to achieve a RSS ≥ 2.

Measurements: Pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures and SpO2 recorded during pre-oxygenation, one minute prior to introduction of fiberscope and then every minute for the following five minutes and  beginning one minute before endotracheal intubation and then every minute until the endotracheal tube was secured, patient’s tolerance assessed on 5 point fiberoptic intubation score during fiberscopy and endotracheal intubation, total comfort score values assessed during pre-oxygenation, fiberscopy and endotracheal intubation and patient’s response to 24 hour post op questionnaire assessment were measured.

Results: DEX group patients were significantly more quiet and more harmonius during awake fiberoptic intubation (AFOI) than were the MDZ group patients. The DEX group patients were found to have a lower mean Heart Rate than the MDZ patients.

Conclusions: Both dexmedetomidine and midazolam are effective for fibreoptic intubation. Dexmedetomidine allows better endurance, stable haemodynamic status and a patent airway.


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