Excellent retention, virologic and clinical outcomes after transitioning from an antiretroviral treatment clinical trial to locally-provided care and treatment in Africa
Background: Little is known about outcomes among clinical trial participants following completion of study-provided care and treatment in resource limited settings. We sought to describe outcomes among HIV clinical trial participants after transitioning to local routine care in Africa.
Methods: In the OCTANE study, 741 women with CD4 <200 cells/mm3 in 7 African countries were randomized to initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART) with tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) plus either lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or nevirapine (NVP). When study-specified ART ended (48-191 weeks after study entry), participants transitioned to locally-provided HIV care and non-study ART. Consenting participants were interviewed and had toxicity labs, CD4 and HIV-1 RNA testing, and clinical outcomes assessed at 12 and 72 weeks after transition to local care.
Results: Five hundred thirteen (77%) of the 669 women in follow-up at completion of the interventional trial participate in the extended follow-up. 513 women, 476 (93%) had HIV-1 RNA <400 cp/mL at time of transition, and 489 (95%) completed follow-up. Seventy-seven women (19%) had a total of 99 antiretroviral regimen changes during post-trial follow-up. 30% of the 99 regimen changes-were due to lack of local drug availability. Thirteen (3%) women had Grade ≥3 laboratory abnormalities and 3 experienced worsening of the WHO HIV stage. Two women died. Eighty-nine percent of 484 with results had HIV-1 RNA ≤400 cp/mL at 72 weeks after transition to local non-study HIV care and treatment.
Conclusions: The vast majority of women were able to continue key components of their ART and to maintain virologic suppression through 72 weeks of locally-provided post-study care.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00089505
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