Protocol for an integrated phase II/III randomised controlled trial of transarterial chemotherapy and sorafenib with or without stereotactic body radiation therapy in patients with nonmetastatic unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma

Supriya Chopra, Nitin Shetty, Mahesh Goel, Reena Engineer, Karthick Rajamanickam, Suyash Kulkarni, Ashwin Polnaya, Shradha Patkar, Vikas Ostwal, Mukta Ramadwar, Jamema Swamidas, Reena Phurailatpam, Siji N. Paul, Epili Dhandpani, Kishore Joshi, Sadhana Kannan, Venkatesh Rangarajan, Shaesta Mehta, Prachi Patil, S. K. Shrivastava


Background: Vast majority of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) present with unresectable disease. In the last decade results of randomized trials and subsequent meta-analyses established trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) as standard of care in patients with Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) stage B. However, there is clearly a need to investigate additional therapeutic options that would consolidate the initial response to TACE. A recent meta-analyses concluded that addition of radiation to TACE had 10-35% improvement in two-year overall survival, however as results of meta-analyses were based on small studies, the need for conducting a high quality randomized study was highlighted. The present study is designed to investigate the role of high dose stereotactic radiation as consolidation therapy after TACE in patients with non-metastatic unresectable HCC.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with non-metastatic unresectable HCC with BCLC stage B/A (medically inoperable) and Child-Pugh’s score A-B7 will be eligible. The trial will randomize patients into TACE alone arm or TACE followed by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The primary aim is to compare in-field progression free survival (PFS) in phase II and overall survival in phase III between the control (TACE) and intervention arm (TACE+SBRT). The secondary aim is to compare cause specific survival, imaging response and quality of life in control and intervention arms.

Results: First analysis of the study has been planned when patient accrued under phase II study have completed 1 year follow up.  

Trail Registration:,NCT02794337


Carcinoma, Hepatocellular, Radiotherapy, Sterotactic body, Transarterial chemoembolization

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